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Diatoms of the United States is now known as Diatoms of North America.
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Citations starting with "w"

Hand-selected and searchable references

Wachnicka, A.H., Gaiser, E.E., and Boyer, J. (2013). Ecology and distribution of diatoms in Biscayne Bay, Florida (USA): Implications for bioassessment and paleoenvironmental studies. Ecological Indicators. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.08.008   
Envekadea vanlandinghamii |

Wallace, J. (1960). New and variable diatoms. Notulae Naturae 331: 1-8.   
Fragilaria | Gomphosphenia |   
Cocconeis fluviatilis | Fragilaria socia | Frustulia capitata | Frustulia latita | Frustulia soror | Geissleria lateropunctata | Gomphonema apuncto | Gomphonema gibba | Navicula germainii | Navicula notha |

Wang, Q., Zhi, C., Hamilton, P. and Kang, F. (2009). Diatom distributions and species optima for phosphorus and current velocity in rivers from ZhuJiang Watershed within a Karst region of south-central China. Fundamental and Applied Limnology Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 175(2): 125-141.   
Gomphonema pseudosphaerophorum |

Wang, S., Lambert, W., Giang, S., Goericke, R. and Palenik, B. (2014). Microalgal assemblages in a poikilohaline pond. Journal of Phycology 50: 303-309.   
Chaetoceros muelleri |

Watanabe, T., Ohtsuka, T., Tuji, A. and Houki, A. (2005). Picture book and ecology of the freshwater diatoms. Uchida-rokakuho, Tokyo. 666 pp.

Wehr, J. and Sheath, R.G. (2003). Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification. Academic Press, 917 pp.   
Terpsinoë musica |

Wenke, T.L. and Eberle, M.E. (1986). Diatoms from streams in Ellis and Russell Counties, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 89: 162-168.

Werner, P. and Smol, J.P. (2006). The distribution of the diatom Cyclotella comensis in Ontario (Canada) lakes. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft 130 373-392.   
Lindavia comensis |

Werum, M. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004). Diatoms in springs, from Central Europe and elsewhere under the influence of hydrogeology and anthropogenic impages. Iconographia Diatomologica 13: 1-417.   
Cavinula pusio | Eunotia tetraodon | Stauroneis acidoclinata | Stauroneis agrestis | Stauroneis ancepsfallax | Stauroneis angustilancea | Stauroneis kriegeri | Stauroneis pseudagrestis | Stauroneis separanda |

Wetzel, C. and Ector, L. (2014). Taxonomy and ecology of F. microvaucheriae sp. nov. and comparison with the type materials of F. uliginosa and F. vaucheriae. Cryptogamie Algologie 36(3): 271-289.   
Fragilaria vaucheriae |

Wetzel, C.E., Ector, L., Hoffmann, L. and Bicudo, D.C. (2010). Colonial planktonic Eunotia (Bacillariophyceae) from Brazilian Amazon: Taxonomy and biogeographical considerations on the E. asterionelloides species complex . Nova Hedwigia 91: 49-86. 10.1127/0029-5035/2010/0091-0049   
Eunotia |   
Eunotia zasuminensis |

Wetzel, C.E., Ector, L., Van de Vijver, B., Compère, P. and Mann, D.G. (2015). Morphology, typification and critical analysis of some ecologically important small naviculoid species (Bacillariophyta). Fottea, Olomouc 15(2): 203–234. 10.5507/fot.2015.020   
Sellaphora |   
Craticula subminuscula | Sellaphora atomoides | Sellaphora nigri | Sellaphora saugerresii |

Wetzel, C.E., Lange-Bertalot, H., Morales, E.A., Bicudo, D.C., Hoffmann, L. and Ector, L. (2012). Bicudoa amazonica gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta)—a new freshwater diatom from the Amazon basin with a complete raphe loss in the Eunotioid lineage. Phytotaxa 75: 1–18.

Wetzel, C.E., Lange-Bertalot, H., Morales, E.A., de C. Bicudo, D., Hoffmann, L. and Ector, L. (2012). Bicudoa amazonica gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta)—a new freshwater diatom from the Amazon basin with a complete raphe loss in the Eunotioid lineage. Phytotaxa 75: 1-18.

Wetzel, C.E., Morales, E.A., Hinz, F., Bicudo, D.C. and Ector, L. (2013). Fragilariforma javanica comb. nov.: analysis of type material of a widely reported species with a tropical distribution. Diatom Research 28: 373-379. 10.1080/0269249X.2013.809668

Wetzel, C.E., Van de Vijver, B. and Ector, L. (2010). Luticola deniseae sp. nov., a new epizoic diatom from the Rio Negro (Amazon hydrographic basin). Vie et Milieu - Life and Environment 60: 177-184.

Wetzel, C.E., Van de Vijver, B., Cox, E.J., Bicudo, D.C. and Ector, L. (2012). Tursiocola podocnemicola sp. nov., a new epizoic freshwater diatom species from the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Diatom Research 27: 1-8.

WETZEL, C.E., VAN DE VIJVER, B., HOFFMANN, L., and ECTOR, L. (2013). Planothidium incuriatum sp. nov. a widely distributed diatom species (Bacillariophyta) and type analysis of Planothidium biporomum. Phytotaxa 138 (1): 43–57.

Wetzel, C.E., Van de Vijver, B., Kopalová, K., Hoffmann, L., Pfister, L. and Ector, L. (2014). Type analysis of the South American diatom Achnanthes haynaldii (Bacillariophyta) and description of Planothidium amphibium sp. nov., from aerial and aquatic environments in Oregon (USA). Plant Ecology and Evolution 147 (3): 439–454. 10.5091/plecevo.2014.1058   
Planothidium haynaldii |

Whitford, L.A. and Kim, Y.C. (1971). Algae from alpine areas in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado . American Midland Naturalist 85(2): 425-430 .

Whitmore, T.J. (1989). Florida diatom assemblages as indicators of trophic state and pH . Limnology and Oceanography 34: 882-895 .   
Surirella tenera |

Whitton, B.A. (2012). Changing approaches to monitoring during the period of the ‘Use of Algae for Monitoring Rivers’ symposia. Hydrobiologia. 10.1007/s10750-012-1121-1

Williams, D.M. (1985). Morphology, taxonomy and inter-relationships of the ribbed araphid diatoms from the genera Diatoma and Meridion (Diatomaceae: Bacillariophyta). Bibliotheca Diatomologica 8: 1-228.   
Diatoma | Meridion | Odontidium | Tetracyclus |   
Diatoma moniliformis | Diatoma vulgaris | Meridion anceps | Meridion circulare | Meridion circulare var. constrictum | Meridion lineare | Odontidium hyemale | Odontidium mesodon | Tetracyclus hinziae |

Williams, D. M. (1986). Comparative morphology of some species of Synedra Ehrenb. with a new definition of the genus. Diatom Research, 1 (1): 131-152.   
Synedra goulardi |

Williams, D.M. (1987). Observations on the genus Tetracyclus Ralfs (Bacillariophyta) I. Valve and girdle structure of the extant species. British Phycological Journal 22: 383-399. 10.1080/00071618700650451   
Tetracyclus |   
Tetracyclus glans | Tetracyclus hinziae | Tetracyclus rupestris |

Williams, D.M. (1989). Observations on the genus Tetracyclus Ralfs (Bacillariophyta) II. Morphology and taxonomy of some fossil species previously classified in Stylobium Ehrenberg. British Phycological Journal 24: 317-327.   
Tetracyclus |   
Tetracyclus glans | Tetracyclus hinziae |

Williams, D.M. (1990). Cladistic analysis of some freshwater araphid diatoms (Bacillariophyta) with particular reference to Diatoma and Meridion. Plant Systematics and Evolution 171: 89-97.   
Diatoma | Distrionella | Odontidium | Tetracyclus |   
Meridion anceps |

Williams, D.M. (1990). Distrionella D.M. Williams, nov. gen., a new araphid diatom (Bacillariophyta) genus closely related to Diatoma Bory. Archiv für Protistenkunde 138: 171-177.   
Distrionella | Tetracyclus |   
Distrionella incognita |

Williams, D.M. (1990). Examination of auxospore valves in Tetracyclus from fossil specimens and the establishment of their identity. Diatom Research 5: 198-194.   
Tetracyclus |

Williams, D.M. (1996). Fossil species of the diatom genus Tetracyclus (Bacillariophyta, ‘Ellipticus’ species group): Morphology, interrelationships and the relevance of ontogeny. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 351:1 759-1782. 10.1098/rstb.1996.0156   
Tetracyclus |   
Tetracyclus glans |

Williams, D.M. (2001). Comments on the structure of “post-auxospore” valves of Fragilariforma virescens. In: Jahn, R., Kociolek, J.P., Witkowski, A and Compère, P. (eds), Lange-Bertalot-Festschrift: Studies on Diatoms. Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Horst Lange-Bertalot on the occassion of his 65th Birthday. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag. K.G. pp. 103-117.   
Fragilariforma virescens |

Williams, D.M. (2007). Diatom phylogeny: Fossils, molecules and the extinction of evidence. Systematic Paleontology (Paleobotany) 6: 505-514. 10.1016/j.crpv.2007.09.016

Williams, D.M. (2011). Synedra, Ulnaria: definitions and descriptions - a partial resolution. Diatom Research 26: 149-153.   
Synedra | Ulnaria |

Williams, D.M. (2012). Diatoma moniliforme: Commentary, relationships and an appropriate name. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 141: 255–262.   
Diatoma moniliformis |

Williams, D.M. (2013). Why is Synedra berolinensis so hard to classify? More on monotypic taxa. Phytotaxa 127: 113-127. 10.11646/phytotaxa.127.1.13

Williams, D.M. and Li, J. (1990). Observations on the diatom genus Tetracyclus Ralfs (Bacillariophyta) III. Description of two new species from Chinese fossil deposits. British Phycological Journal 25: 335-338.   
Tetracyclus |   
Tetracyclus hinziae |

Williams, D.M. and Reid, G. (2006). Amphorotia nov. gen., a new genus in the family Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae) based on Eunotia clevei Grunow in Cleve et Grunow. Diatom Monographs, Vol. 6. A.R.G. Verlag K.G., 153 pp.   
Amphorotia |   
Eunotia eruca |

Williams, D.M. and Reid, G. (2006). Fossils and the tropics, the Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyta) expanded: A new genus for the Upper Eocene fossil diatom Eunotia reedii and the recent tropical marine diatom Amphora reichardtiana. European Journal of Phycology 41(20): 147-154. 10.1080/09670260600628564   
Peronia |   
Eunotia eruca |

Williams, D.M. and Reid, G. (2008). Type material of Peronia fibula: morphology, systematics and relationships. Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Diatom Symposium 2006 (Y. Likhoshway ed.), Biopress Ltd., Bristol, pp. 141-150.   
Peronia |   
Peronia fibula |

Williams, D.M. and Round, F.E. (1986). Revision of the genus Synedra Ehrenb. Diatom Research 1: 313-339.   
Synedra | Tabularia |   
Ctenophora pulchella |

Williams, D.M. and Round, F.E. (1987). Revision of the genus Synedra Ehrenb. Diatom Research 1(2): 313-339.   
Ctenophora | Punctastriata | Staurosirella |   
Fragilariforma acidobiontica | Fragilariforma bicapitata | Fragilariforma constricta | Fragilariforma nitzschioides | Pseudostaurosira brevistriata | Pseudostaurosira elliptica | Pseudostaurosira pseudoconstruens | Pseudostaurosira robusta | Pseudostaurosira trainorii | Staurosirella leptostauron | Staurosirella leptostauron var. dubia | Staurosirella pinnata | Tabularia fasciculata |

Williams, D.M. and Round, F.E. (1988). Fragilariforma, nom. nov., a new generic name for Neofragilaria Williams & Round. Diatom Research 3: 265-267.   
Fragilariforma |   
Fragilariforma acidobiontica | Fragilariforma bicapitata | Fragilariforma constricta | Fragilariforma nitzschioides | Fragilariforma virescens | Pseudostaurosira robusta |

Williams, D.W. and Kociolek, J.P. (2010). Towards a comprehensive diatom classification and phylogeny (Bacillariophyta). Plant Ecology and Evolution 143(3): 265-270. 10.5091/plecevo.2010.401

Winsborough, B. M. (2000). Pleistocene diatoms from the 602,000 YR BP Lava Creek B Ash. Diatom Research, 15(1): 159-166.   
Fragilariforma nitzschioides |

Winsborough, B.M., Shimada, I., Newsom, L.A., Jones, J.G. and Segura, R.A. (2012). Paleoenvironmental catastrophies on the Peruvian coast revealed in lagoon sediment cores from Pachacamac. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(3): 602–614. 10.1016/j.jas.2011.10.018

Winston, J.E. (1999). Describing Species: A Practical Taxonomic Procedure for Biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 518 pp.

Winter, D. and Bahls, L. (2013). Encyonema hamsherae, a new species from the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Phytotaxa 127(1): 58-65. 10.11646/phytotaxa.127.1.9   
Encyonema hamsherae |

Wislouch, S.M. (1924). Beiträge zur Diatomeenflora von Asien. II. Neue Untersuchungen über die Diatomeen des Baikalsees. Berichte der Deutschen Botanishen Gesellschaft 42: 163-173.   
Cymbella amplificata |

Witkowski, A. (1993). Fallacia florinae (Moeller) comb. nov., a marine, epipsammic diatom. Diatom Research 8 (1): 215-219.   
Fallacia |

Witkowski, A., Gomes, A., Mann, D.G., Trobajo, R., Li, C., Barka, F., Gusev, E., Dąbek, P., Grzonka, J., Kurzydłowski, K.J., Zgłobicka, I., Harrison, M. and Boski, T. (2015). Simonsenia aveniformis sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), molecular phylogeny and systematics of the genus, and a new type of canal raphe system. Scientific Reports 5, Article: 17115 . 10.1038/srep17115   
Simonsenia delognei |

Witkowski, A., Kulikovskiy, M., Nevrova, E., Lange-Bertalot, H. and Gogorev, R. (2010). The genus Navicula in ancient basins. I. Two novelties from the Black Sea. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143(3): 307-317. 10.5091/plecevo.2010.421

Witkowski, A. Lange-Bertalot, H. and Metzeltin, D. (1995). The diatom species Fragilaria martyi (Héribaud) Lange-Bertalot, identity and ecology. Archiv für Protistenkunde 146: 281-292.   
Staurosirella martyi |

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H. and Metzeltin, D. (2000). Diatom Flora of Marine Coasts I. Iconographia Diatomologica 7: 1-925.   
Envekadea | Haslea | Prestauroneis |   
Actinocyclus normanii | Biremis circumtexta | Diprora haenaensis | Entomoneis punctulata | Mastogloia pumila | Navicula elsoniana | Navicula genovefae | Navicula hodgeana | Navicula nunivakiana | Navicula streckerae | Navicula subrostellata | Prestauroneis protracta | Tryblionella gracilis |

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H. and Stachura, K. (1998). New and confused species in the genus Navicula (Bacillariophyceae) and the consequences of restrictive generic circumscription. Cryptogamie Algol. 19: 83-108.   
Navicula vaneei |

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H., Kociolek, J.P., Bak, M., Kulikovskiy, M.S. and Kuznetsova, I. (2015). Diatom flora of San Francisco Bay and vicinity III. New species in the genus Nitzschia Hassall. Nova Hedwigia Supplement 144: 211-228.   
Nitzschia |

Witkowski, A., Lange-Bertalot, H., Kociolek, J.P., Ruppel, M., Wawrzyniak-Wydrowska, B., Bak, M. and Brzezinska, A. (2004). Four new species of Nitzschia sect. Tryblionella (Bacillariophyceae) resembling N. parvula. Phycologia 43(5): 579-595 . 10.2216/i0031-8884-43-5-579.1   
Tryblionella |

Wojtal, A. (2003). Diatoms of the genus Gomphonema Ehr. (Bacillariophyceae) from a karstic stream in the Krakowsko-Czestochowska Upland. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 72(3):213-220.   
Gomphonema sarcophagus |

Wojtal, A.Z., Ector, L., Van de Vijver, B., Morales, E.A., Blanco, S., Piatek, J. and Smieja, A. (2011). The Achnanthidium minutissimum complex (Bacillariophyceae) in southern Poland . Algological Studies 136-137: 211-238. 10.1127/1864-1318/2011/0136-0211   
Achnanthidium |

Wojtal, A.Z., Ognjanova–Rumenova, N., Wetzel, C.E., Hinz, F., Piątek, J., Kapetanovic, T., Ector, L. and Buczkó, K. (2014). Diversity of the genus Genkalia (Bacillariophyta) in boreal and mountain lakes – taxonomy, distribution and ecology. Fottea, Olomouc 14(2): 225–239.   
Genkalia |

Wolfe, A.P. and Kling, H.J. (2001). A consideration of some North American soft-water Brachysira taxa and description of B. arctoborealis sp. nov. Lange-Bertalot-Festschrift Studies on Diatoms, Dedicated to Dr. Dr. h.c. Horst Lange-Bertalot on the occasion of his 65th birthday.   
Brachysira |   
Brachysira arctoborealis | Brachysira microcephala | Brachysira ocalanensis |

Wolfe, A.P. and Siver, P.A. (2009). Three extant genera of freshwater thalassiosiroid diatoms from Middle Eocene sediments in northern Canada. American Journal of Botany 96 (2): 487-497. 10.3732/ajb.0800307   
Cyclotella | Puncticulata |

Wolfe, A.P., Cooke, C.A. and Hobbs, W.O. (2006). Are current rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition influencing lakes in the eastern Canadian Arctic?. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 38: 465-476.   
Brachysira |   
Asterionella formosa | Fragilaria crotonensis |

Wolfe, A.P., Van Gorp, A.C. and Baron, J.S. (2003). Recent ecological and biogeochemical changes in alpine lakes of Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA): a response to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Geobiology 1: 153–168.   
Asterionella formosa |

Wolle, F. (1890). Diatomaceae of North America. The Commenius Press, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 47 pp., 112 pl.   
Amphora calumetica | Surirella cruciata |

Wornardt, W. (1964). Pleistocene diatoms from Mono and Panamint lake basins, California. California Academy of Sciences 46:1-27.

Wujek, D.L. and Welling, M.L. (1981). The occurrence of two centric diatoms new to the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 7 (1): 55-56.   
Terpsinoë musica |

Wunsam, S., Schmidt, R. and Klee, R. (1995). Cyclotella-taxa (Bacillariophyceae) in lakes of the Alpine region and their relationship to environmental variables. Aquatic Sciences 57: 360-386.   
Discostella | Stephanocyclus |   
Lindavia comensis | Lindavia ocellata |

Wustman, B.A., Gretz, M.R. and Hoagland, K.D. (1997). Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). I. A model of adhesives based on chemical characterization and localization of polysaccharides from the marine diatom Achnanthes longipes and other diatoms. Plant Physiology 113:1059.   
Achnanthes |

Wuthrich, M. (1975). Contribution à la connaissance de la flore algologique du Parc National Suisse. Le Diatomées. [Résultats des recherches scientifiques au Parc National suisse]. Druck Lüdin, AG Liestal. Band XIV: 273-369.   
Eunotia papilioforma | Eunotia rhomboidea |