(Héribaud) Morales and Manoylov 2006 Category: Araphid
BASIONYM: Opephora martyi Héribaud 1902
SYNONYM(S): Martyana martyi (Héribaud) Round 1990 | Fragilaria martyi (Héribaud) Lange-Bertalot 1993
REPORTED AS: Fragilaria leptostauron var. martyi (Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1991, p. 160 fig. 133:28-31) | Fragilaria mutabilis f. martyi ((Heribaud) Cleve-Euler 1932) | Fragilaria mutabilis var. intercedens ((Heribaud) Cleve-Euler 1932)
Contributor: Edna Pedraza Garzon - June 2014
Length Range: 6-28 µm
Width Range: 5.5-8 µm
Striae in 10 µm: 5-6
Valve margin variable, from ovoid to elliptic. Valves are coarse, robust, and asymmetric to symmetric to the transapical axes. In other words, valves are typically heteropolar in valve view. A “step” is visible at the headpole of many specimens, but not all. The sternum is usually lanceolate. The striae are coarse and distinctive, and are formed by lineolae. The striae are perpendicular to the apical axis, but become radiate near the ends. A single apical pore field is present at the foot pole. Spines are absent. In girdle view, valves are rectangular and the wide valvocopula is visible. The “step” at the headpole may also be evident.
Due to the absence of spines, S. martyi does not form ribbon-like colonies like some other small fragilarioid taxa. Identification of small specimens is difficult and small valves of S. martyi may be indistinguishable from those of S. ovata and S. pinnata.
Basionym: Opephora martyi
Author: Héribaud 1902
Length Range: 17 µm
Width Range: 7 µm
Striae in 10 µm: 6
Heribaud, J. (1902). Les Diatomees fossiles D’ Auvergne. Librairie des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, France. 79 p.
Morales, E.A Monoylov, K.M. (2006). Morphological studies on selected taxa in the genus Staurosirella Wiliams et Round (Bacillariophyceae) from rivers in North America . Diatom Research 21(2):343-364.
Witkowski, A. Lange-Bertalot, H. and Metzeltin, D. (1995). The diatom species Fragilaria martyi (Heribaud) Lange-Bertalot, identity and ecology. Archiv für Protistenkunde 146: 281-292.
NADED ID: 175031
Staurosirella martyi is usually found as solitary cells attached to sand grains. Cells may also form zig-zag colonies by means of mucilage pads. In this study, it was found in plankton and epipsammic samples from West Lake Okoboji (Triboji Beach and Gull Point) in Dickinson County, Iowa. Specimens in the Reimer Herbarium included a moist sand site at Miniwaukan State Park, Spirit Lake, Dickinson County, Iowa.
The highest densities of S. martyi recorded by the USGS BioData program have been from creeks and rivers of Nebraska, Wisconsin and Minnesota although there are also abundant records from California, Idaho and Georgia.
This species has been reported to be tolerant of eutrophic waters (Witkowski et al. 1995). In North America, S. martyi has been found in warm (19 -23 ºC), and basic waters (pH 8.3), with conductivities between 312-348 µS/cm (Morales and Manoylov 2005).
Staurosirella martyi attached to a sand grain
Credit/Source: Image by E. Pedraza Garzón
Credit/Source: Image by E. Pedraza Garzón
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) study was completed during the years 2000-2004 (see citations at bottom of this page). Over 1200 streams and rivers in 12 western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming) were selected for sampling based on a stratified randomized design. This type of design insures that ecological resources are sampled in proportion to their actual geographical presence. Stratified randomized design also allows for estimates of stream length with a known confidence in several “condition classes” (good or least-disturbed, intermediately-disturbed, and poor or most-disturbed) for biotic condition, chemistry and habitat.
Results are published in:
Johnson, T., Hermann, K., Spaulding, S., Beyea, B., Theel, C., Sada, R., Bollman, W., Bowman, J., Larsen, A., Vining, K., Ostermiller, J., Petersen, D. Hargett, E. and Zumberge, J. (2009). An ecological assessment of USEPA Region 8 streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Report, 178 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Olsen, A. R., Larsen, D. P., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Hughes, R. M., Whittier, T. R., Lomnicky, G. A., Herlihy, A. T., Kaufman, P. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., Paulsen, S. G., and Blair, R. (2005). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) western streams and rivers statistical summary. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/006, 1,762 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Paulsen, S. G., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Herlihy, A. T., Hughes, R. M., Kaufman, P. R., Larsen, D. P., Lomnicky, G. A., Olsen, A. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., and Whittier, T. R. (2005). An ecological assessment of western streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/005, 49 p.