Grunow 1860 Category: Symmetrical biraphid
BASIONYM: Stauroneis smithii Grunow 1860
Contributor: Loren Bahls - October 2012
Length Range: 18-28 µm
Width Range: 5.8-7.7 µm
Striae in 10 µm: 25-30
Valves are elliptic-lanceolate to rhombic-lanceolate with triundulate margins and short apiculate apices. A pseudoseptum is present at each apex. The axial area is very narrow and linear, becoming wider near the central area. The central stauros is narrow and linear. The raphe is filiform with straight and weakly inflated proximal ends. Striae are weakly radiate throughout. Areolae are closely spaced and number 26-30 in 10 µm.
Stauroneis smithii is one of the most widespread and easily identified species of Stauroneis in the United States.
Basionym: Stauroneis smithii
Author: Grunow 1860
Length Range: µm
Striae in 10 µm:
Bahls, L. (2010). Stauroneis in the Northern Rockies: 50 species of Stauroneis sensu stricto from western Montana, northern Idaho, northeastern Washington and southwestern Alberta, including 16 species described as new. Northwest Diatoms, Volume 4. The Montana Diatom Collection, Helena, 172 pp.
Grunow, A. (1860). Uber neue oder ungenügend gekannte Algen. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wein, 10: 503-582.
Krammer, K. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (1986). Bacillariophyceae. 1. Teil: Naviculaceae. In: Ettl, H., J. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. Mollenhauer (eds.) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2/1. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena. 876 pp.
Levkov, Z., Tofilovska, S., Jovanovska, E., Cvetkoska, A. and Metzeltin, D. (2016). Revision of the Stauroneis smithii Grunow (Bacillariophyceae) species complex from Macedonia. Botanica Serbica 40(2): 167-178.
Patrick, R.M. and Reimer, C.W. (1966). The Diatoms of the United States exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, V. 1. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13.
As an ecological generalist, Stauroneis smithii is widely distributed in a variety of habitats under varied water quality conditions. It is seldom found in abundance.
Abundance-weighted means of selected water quality variables measured concurrently with the collection of samples containing Stauroneis smithii.
Credit/Source: Montana Diatom Database
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) study was completed during the years 2000-2004 (see citations at bottom of this page). Over 1200 streams and rivers in 12 western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming) were selected for sampling based on a stratified randomized design. This type of design insures that ecological resources are sampled in proportion to their actual geographical presence. Stratified randomized design also allows for estimates of stream length with a known confidence in several “condition classes” (good or least-disturbed, intermediately-disturbed, and poor or most-disturbed) for biotic condition, chemistry and habitat.
Results are published in:
Johnson, T., Hermann, K., Spaulding, S., Beyea, B., Theel, C., Sada, R., Bollman, W., Bowman, J., Larsen, A., Vining, K., Ostermiller, J., Petersen, D. Hargett, E. and Zumberge, J. (2009). An ecological assessment of USEPA Region 8 streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Report, 178 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Olsen, A. R., Larsen, D. P., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Hughes, R. M., Whittier, T. R., Lomnicky, G. A., Herlihy, A. T., Kaufman, P. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., Paulsen, S. G., and Blair, R. (2005). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) western streams and rivers statistical summary. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/006, 1,762 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Paulsen, S. G., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Herlihy, A. T., Hughes, R. M., Kaufman, P. R., Larsen, D. P., Lomnicky, G. A., Olsen, A. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., and Whittier, T. R. (2005). An ecological assessment of western streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/005, 49 p.