Stauroneis kriegeri

R.M.Patrick 1945      Category: Symmetrical biraphid

Stauroneis kootenai


Stauroneis lauenburgiana

LM scalebar = 10 µm = 80 pixels.


Contributor: Loren Bahls - May 2012
Length Range: 19-25 µm
Width Range: 4.1-5.5 µm
Striae in 10 µm: 26-30


Valves are linear-lanceolate with subtly triundulate margins and subcapitate apices. The axial area is linear and very narrow, widening slightly near the central area. The stauros is relatively narrow and widens somewhat towards the valve margin. The raphe is filiform and straight, with unexpanded proximal ends. Striae are radiate throughout. Areolae are variably sized and spaced and number about 40 in 10 µm.

Original Description

Author: R.M.Patrick 1945
Length Range: 20-23 µm
Width Range: 4-5 µm
Striae in 10 µm: 26-30

Original Description

Original Images

Cite This Page:
Bahls, L. (2012). Stauroneis kriegeri. In Diatoms of the United States. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from

Species: Stauroneis kriegeri

Contributor: Loren Bahls

Reviewer: Rex Lowe


Bahls, L. (2010). Stauroneis in the Northern Rockies: 50 species of Stauroneis sensu stricto from western Montana, northern Idaho, northeastern Washington and southwestern Alberta, including 16 species described as new. Northwest Diatoms, Volume 4. The Montana Diatom Collection, Helena, 172 pp.

Krieger, W. (1929). Algologisch-monographische Untersuchungen über das Hochmoor am Diebelsee. Beiträge zur Naturdenkmalpflege 13(2): 233-300, pls. 1-3.

Patrick, R.M. (1945). A taxonomic and ecological study of some diatoms from the Pocono Plateau and adjacent regions. Farlowia 2(2):143-221.

Patrick, R.M. and Reimer, C.W. (1966). The Diatoms of the United States exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, V. 1. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13.

Van de Vijver, B., Beyens, L. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004). The genus Stauroneis in Arctic and Antarctic Regions. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 50, 312 pp.

Werum, M. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004). Diatoms in springs, from Central Europe and elsewhere under the influence of hydrogeology and anthropogenic impages. Iconographia Diatomologica 13: 1-417.

Links & ID's

Index Nominum Algarum (INA)

Original INA

California Academy of Sciences (CAS)

Stauroneis kriegeri CAS

NCBI Genbank Taxonomy

Stauroneis kriegeri NCBI

North American Diatom Ecological Database (NADED)

NADED ID: 62008

Autecology Discussion

Stauroneis kriegeri is common and widespread in small streams and ponds in the western United States (see map under EMAP Assessment). These waters tend to have circumneutral pH and low conductivity (see table below and EMAP Assessment). Common diatom associates of S. kriegeri include Frustulia amphipleuroides, Nupela lapidosa, Eunotia minor, Diadesmis perpusilla, Diatomella balfouriana, Karayevia laterostrata, and Adlafia suchlandtii. Patrick and Reimer (1966) describe this taxon as characteristic of headwater areas; Van de Vijver et al. (2004) report it as a diatom of wet soils in the Antarctic; and Werum and Lange-Bertalot (2004) report it from springs in Europe.


Kootenai Pond, Glacier National Park, Montana: home of Stauroneis kriegeri.

Credit/Source: Loren Bahls

Abundance-weighted means of selected water quality variables measured concurrently with the collection of diatom samples containing Stauroneis kriegeri.

Credit/Source: Montana Diatom Database

EMAP Assessment

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) study was completed during the years 2000-2004 (see citations at bottom of this page). Over 1200 streams and rivers in 12 western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming) were selected for sampling based on a stratified randomized design. This type of design insures that ecological resources are sampled in proportion to their actual geographical presence. Stratified randomized design also allows for estimates of stream length with a known confidence in several “condition classes” (good or least-disturbed, intermediately-disturbed, and poor or most-disturbed) for biotic condition, chemistry and habitat.

EMAP Distribution

Stauroneis kriegeri

EMAP Response Plots

Stauroneis kriegeri

EMAP citations

Results are published in:

Johnson, T., Hermann, K., Spaulding, S., Beyea, B., Theel, C., Sada, R., Bollman, W., Bowman, J., Larsen, A., Vining, K., Ostermiller, J., Petersen, D. Hargett, E. and Zumberge, J. (2009). An ecological assessment of USEPA Region 8 streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Report, 178 p.

Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Olsen, A. R., Larsen, D. P., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Hughes, R. M., Whittier, T. R., Lomnicky, G. A., Herlihy, A. T., Kaufman, P. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., Paulsen, S. G., and Blair, R. (2005). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) western streams and rivers statistical summary. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/006, 1,762 p.

Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Paulsen, S. G., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Herlihy, A. T., Hughes, R. M., Kaufman, P. R., Larsen, D. P., Lomnicky, G. A., Olsen, A. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., and Whittier, T. R. (2005). An ecological assessment of western streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/005, 49 p.