Gyrosigma acuminatum

(Kützing) Rabenhorst 1853      Category: Symmetrical biraphid
BASIONYM: Frustulia acuminata Kützing 1833
SYNONYM(S): Navicula acuminata (Kützing) Kützing 1844 | Pleurosigma acuminatum (Kützing) Grunow 1860 
REPORTED AS: Gyrosigma spencerii (Patrick and Reimer 1966, p. 315, pl. 23, fig. 4.) 

Gomphosphenia lingulatiformis

 

Gyrosigma attenuatum

LM scalebar = 10 µm = 40 pixels.



Observations

Contributor: Michelle Chaput - June 2014
Length Range: 77-153 µm
Width Range: 11-18 µm
Striae in 10 µm: transverse 18-20; longitudinal 18-22

Description

Valves are slender and sigmoid in outline, smoothly tapering to acutely rounded ends. The central area is small and longitudinally elliptical. The raphe is central and straight for half its length, except near distal ends where it follows a sigmoid shape and is slightly eccentric toward each convex side. Proximal raphe ends project into the central area and curve in opposite directions. The axial area is narrow. Areolae are uniseriate and punctate, except near margin where they appear more lineolate. Transverse and longitudinal striae are fine and appear equal in visibility. Transverse striae on either side of central area are very slightly radiate, with the remaining transverse striae parallel to one another, perpendicular to the raphe, and equidistant. Longitudinal striae are equidistant and follow a sigmoid shape, curving slightly toward the valve margin on either side of central area. Smaller specimens appear slightly less sigmoid and more linear-lanceolate.

Gyrosigma acuminatum has been referred to as G. spencerii in instances where valve lengths exceed 140 µm and are very slender. Sterrenburg (1995) compared type material for both species from different regions and reports that longitudinal and transverse stria density, longitudinal/transverse stria ratio, and length and width overlapped. Sterrenburg (1995) concluded that there are no qualitative or ecological differences between the two taxa. Gyrosigma spenceri should now be considered a later subjective synonym to G. acuminatum (Sterrenburg and Underwood, 1997).



Original Description

Basionym: Frustulia acuminata
Author: Kützing 1833
Length Range: µm
Striae in 10 µm:

Original Description

G. acuminata Rabenh. (F. 5. a.) Selten über 6-7/100 Mm. lang, robust, zuge-spitzt, stumpflich. Durch ganz Europa, Bogotá.

Original Images


Cite This Page:
Chaput, M. (2014). Gyrosigma acuminatum. In Diatoms of the United States. Retrieved September 20, 2017, from http://westerndiatoms.colorado.edu/taxa/species/gyrosigma_acuminatum

Species: Gyrosigma acuminatum

Contributor: Michelle Chaput

Reviewer: Mark Edlund

Citations

Patrick, R.M. and Reimer, C.W. (1966). The Diatoms of the United States exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, V. 1. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13.

Rabenhorst, L. (1853). Die Süßwasser-Diatomaceen (Bacillarien) für Freunde der Mikroskopie. Leipzig, 72 pp.

Sterrenburg, F.A.S. (1995). Studies on the genera Gyrosigma and Pleurosigma (Bacillariophyceae). Gyrosigma acuminatum (Kützing) Rabenhorst, G. spenceri (Quekett) Griffith et Henfrey and G. rautenbachiae Cholnoky. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146: 467-480.

Sterrenburg, F.A.S. (1997). Studies on the genera Gyrosigma and Pleurosigma (Bacillariophyceae). Gyrosigma kuetzingii (Grunow) Cleve and G. peisonis (Grunow) Hustedt. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 148: 157-163.

Sterrenburg, F.A.S. and Underwood, G.J.C. (1997). Studies on the genera Gyrosigma and Pleurosigma (Bacillariophyceae). The marine Gyrosigma spenceri records: Gyrosigma limosum Sterrenburg et Underwood nov. sp. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 148: 165-169.

Vanden Byllaardt, J. and Cyr, H. (2011). Does a warmer lake mean smaller benthic algae? Evidence against the importance of temperature-size relationships in natural systems. Oikos, 120: 162-169. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18880.x

Links & ID's

Index Nominum Algarum (INA)

Original INA

California Academy of Sciences (CAS)

Gyrosigma acuminatum CAS

NCBI Genbank Taxonomy

Gyrosigma acuminatum NCBI

North American Diatom Ecological Database (NADED)

NADED ID: 38001

Autecology Discussion

Gyrosigma acuminatum was collected in several different habitats within Dickinson County, Iowa; 1) on a windy day using a plankton net (25 µm) off a dock in Lazy Lagoon, 2) on a partially submerged branch floating in Beck’s Canal, 3) using a plankton net (10 µm) off the east side of the Harpen St. bridge, and 4) in a pool of standing water in Excelsior Fen (part of the Silver Lake Fen State Preserve).

Frustules of Gyrosigma acuminatum are large and distinct. It is primarily an epipelic species which lives unattached on fine substrates. This species is considered to be globally distributed in freshwater, but has also been observed in brackish habitats. In a study on temperature-size relationships, larger specimens of G. acuminatum were more readily observed in exposed sites in a main lake basin rather than in protected embayments (Vanden Byllaardt and Cyr, 2011). Frustules were similar in size at warm and cold sites. In that study, frustule size appeared to be related not to water temperature, but as a function of site exposure.

Images

Live specimen showing the chloroplasts which span the length of the frustule.

Credit/Source: Michelle Chaput

Live specimen showing the nucleus in the center of the frustule.

Credit/Source: Michelle Chaput

Live specimen in girdle view.

Credit/Source: Michelle Chaput

Live specimen in girdle view during cell division (a thin band of silica is visible along the apical axis in the center of the frustule.

Credit/Source: Michelle Chaput

Live specimen in girdle view at the beginning of cell division.

Credit/Source: Michelle Chaput

EMAP Assessment

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) study was completed during the years 2000-2004 (see citations at bottom of this page). Over 1200 streams and rivers in 12 western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming) were selected for sampling based on a stratified randomized design. This type of design insures that ecological resources are sampled in proportion to their actual geographical presence. Stratified randomized design also allows for estimates of stream length with a known confidence in several “condition classes” (good or least-disturbed, intermediately-disturbed, and poor or most-disturbed) for biotic condition, chemistry and habitat.


EMAP Distribution

Gyrosigma acuminatum


EMAP Response Plots

Gyrosigma acuminatum


EMAP citations

Results are published in:

Johnson, T., Hermann, K., Spaulding, S., Beyea, B., Theel, C., Sada, R., Bollman, W., Bowman, J., Larsen, A., Vining, K., Ostermiller, J., Petersen, D. Hargett, E. and Zumberge, J. (2009). An ecological assessment of USEPA Region 8 streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Report, 178 p.

Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Olsen, A. R., Larsen, D. P., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Hughes, R. M., Whittier, T. R., Lomnicky, G. A., Herlihy, A. T., Kaufman, P. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., Paulsen, S. G., and Blair, R. (2005). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) western streams and rivers statistical summary. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/006, 1,762 p.

Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Paulsen, S. G., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Herlihy, A. T., Hughes, R. M., Kaufman, P. R., Larsen, D. P., Lomnicky, G. A., Olsen, A. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., and Whittier, T. R. (2005). An ecological assessment of western streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/005, 49 p.