(W. Smith) Lange-Bertalot 1980 Category: Araphid
BASIONYM: Synedra tenera W. Smith 1856
Valves are narrow and lanceolate, with attenuated, capitate apices. The mid-valve has convex margins. In girdle view, frustules are somewhat rectangular and wider at mid-valve. The axial area is lanceolate and in some specimens a distinct fascia is present in the central area. Striae are distinct, but areolae are resolvable under LM. Striae are parallel throughout the valve and extend midway onto the valve mantle. Costae are wider than the striae.
Basionym: Synedra tenera
Author: W. Smith 1856
Length Range: µm
Striae in 10 µm:
Lange-Bertalot, H. (1980). Zur systematischen Bewertung der bandförmigen Kolonien bei Navicula und Fragilaria. Kriterien für die Vereinigung von Synedra (subgen. Synedra) Ehrenberg mit Fragilaria Lyngbye. Nova Hedwigia 33: 723-787.
Smith, W. (1856). Synopsis of British Diatomaceae. John Van Voorst, London 1856. 2: 107pp., pls. 32-60, 61-62, A-E.
Cells may form small colonies, joined by linking spines.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) study was completed during the years 2000-2004 (see citations at bottom of this page). Over 1200 streams and rivers in 12 western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming) were selected for sampling based on a stratified randomized design. This type of design insures that ecological resources are sampled in proportion to their actual geographical presence. Stratified randomized design also allows for estimates of stream length with a known confidence in several “condition classes” (good or least-disturbed, intermediately-disturbed, and poor or most-disturbed) for biotic condition, chemistry and habitat.
Results are published in:
Johnson, T., Hermann, K., Spaulding, S., Beyea, B., Theel, C., Sada, R., Bollman, W., Bowman, J., Larsen, A., Vining, K., Ostermiller, J., Petersen, D. Hargett, E. and Zumberge, J. (2009). An ecological assessment of USEPA Region 8 streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Report, 178 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Olsen, A. R., Larsen, D. P., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Hughes, R. M., Whittier, T. R., Lomnicky, G. A., Herlihy, A. T., Kaufman, P. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., Paulsen, S. G., and Blair, R. (2005). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) western streams and rivers statistical summary. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/006, 1,762 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Paulsen, S. G., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Herlihy, A. T., Hughes, R. M., Kaufman, P. R., Larsen, D. P., Lomnicky, G. A., Olsen, A. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., and Whittier, T. R. (2005). An ecological assessment of western streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/005, 49 p.