Contributor: Rex Lowe - December 2010
Length Range: 20-33 µm
Width Range: 7.3-9 µm
Striae in 10 µm: 12-15
Valves are dorsiventral and are 20-33 μm long and 7.3-9 μm wide. Valves taper toward rounded to rostrate ends. Striae are 12-15 in 10 μm and costae are 6-8 in 10 μm. There are 2 (sometimes 3) striae between costae. The dorsal margin is strongly convex and the ventral margin is weakly concave. The raphe canal lies against the ventral margin at distal ends of the valve and arches toward the dorsal margin in the valve center. The central arch of the canal reaches almost to the dorsal margin.
Basionym: Epithemia sorex
Author: Kützing 1844
Length Range: 25 µm
Striae in 10 µm: 5.3 costae in 10 μm
E. minuta a latere secundario dorso valde convexa, apicibus acutis prominentibus; striis convergentibus (in 1/100”’ parte 12); a latere primario elliptica, apicibus abtusiusculis prominentibus.
Krammer, K. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (1988). Bacillariophyceae. 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae. In: Ettl, H., J. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. Mollenhauer (eds.) Susswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2/2. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena.
Kützing, F.T. (1844). Die kieselschaligen Bacillarien oder Diatomeen. Nordhausen. 152 pp., 30 pls.
Similar to other species of Epithemia, E. sorex frustules contain nitrogen-fixing endosymbiotic cyanobacteria which enable this taxon to become abundant in microhabitats with a low N/P ratio. It is frequently very abundant as an epiphyte on Cladophora and other coarse filamentous algae in western rivers and similar N-limited habitats.
SEM of E. sorex epiphytic on Cladophora in the Eel River, a N-limited river in California.
Credit/Source: Rex Lowe
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) study was completed during the years 2000-2004 (see citations at bottom of this page). Over 1200 streams and rivers in 12 western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming) were selected for sampling based on a stratified randomized design. This type of design insures that ecological resources are sampled in proportion to their actual geographical presence. Stratified randomized design also allows for estimates of stream length with a known confidence in several “condition classes” (good or least-disturbed, intermediately-disturbed, and poor or most-disturbed) for biotic condition, chemistry and habitat.
Results are published in:
Johnson, T., Hermann, K., Spaulding, S., Beyea, B., Theel, C., Sada, R., Bollman, W., Bowman, J., Larsen, A., Vining, K., Ostermiller, J., Petersen, D. Hargett, E. and Zumberge, J. (2009). An ecological assessment of USEPA Region 8 streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Report, 178 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Olsen, A. R., Larsen, D. P., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Hughes, R. M., Whittier, T. R., Lomnicky, G. A., Herlihy, A. T., Kaufman, P. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., Paulsen, S. G., and Blair, R. (2005). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) western streams and rivers statistical summary. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/006, 1,762 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Paulsen, S. G., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Herlihy, A. T., Hughes, R. M., Kaufman, P. R., Larsen, D. P., Lomnicky, G. A., Olsen, A. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., and Whittier, T. R. (2005). An ecological assessment of western streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/005, 49 p.