Ehrenberg 1845 Category: Surirelloid
BASIONYM: Campylodiscus hibernicus Ehrenberg 1845
SYNONYM(S): Campylodiscus noricus var. hibernicus (Ehrenberg) Grunow
Contributor: Sylvia Lee -
Length Range: 70-114 (greatest valve dimension) µm
Striae in 10 µm:
Cells are solitary, with saddle-shaped valves. Frustules are large with the greatest valve dimension, or diameter, at 70-114 µm. Within a frustule, the valves are oriented perpendicular to one another, that is, the proximal and distal raphe ends are offset from one another by 90 degrees. Furthermore, the valves are curved in both the apical and transapical planes. The raphe is positioned within a marginal canal, raised onto a keel, supported by alar canals. The density of alar canals is 16-20 in 100 µm. The fibula density does not appear to be related to valve diameter. Under SEM, the internal face of the valve is smooth. Externally, numerous short, robust spines cover the valve face and are often more numerous along the radial ridges.
Chloroplast structure has been reported (Round et al. 1990) as “one plastid, divided into two valve-appressed plates with lobed margins, linked by a narrow isthmus.” European floras include a wider range in fibula density, 10-20 in 100 µm (Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1988).
Basionym: Campylodiscus hibernicus
Author: Ehrenberg 1845
Length Range: µm
Striae in 10 µm:
Ehrenberg, C.G. (1845). Vorläufige zweite Mettheilung über die weitere Erkenntnifs der Beziehungen des kleinsten organischen Lebens zu den vulkanischen Massen der Erde. Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1845:133-157.
Krammer, K. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (1988). Bacillariophyceae. 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae. In: Ettl, H., J. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. Mollenhauer (eds.) Susswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2/2. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena.
Ramrath, A., Nowaczyk, N.R. and Negendank, J.F.W. (1999). Sedimentological evidence for environmental changes since 34,000 years BP from Lago di Mezzano, central Italy. Journal of Paleolimnology 21: 423-435. 10.1023/A:1008006424706
Ruck, E.C. and Kociolek, J.P. (2005). Preliminary phylogeny of the Family Surirellaceae (Bacillariophyta). Bibliotheca Diatomologica 50: 1-236.
Van Campo, E. and Gasse, F. (1993). Pollen- and diatom-inferred climatic and hydrological changes in Sumxi Co Basin (Western Tibet) since 13,000 yr B.P. Quaternary Research 39: 300-313. 10.1006/qres.1993.1037
Campylodiscus hibernicus was found in a benthic dredge sample in a deep location of West Lake Okoboji, Dickinson County, Iowa. In specimens from the Reimer Herbarium, C. hibernicus was found in planktonic, epiphytic and epilithic samples of Lake Okoboji. The genus Campylodiscus is typically associated with the epipelon and can be found in fresh, brackish, and marine waters (Round et al. 1990). Campylodiscus can also be tychoplanktonic, becoming resuspended into the water column during periods of turnover or high turbidity, resulting in its inclusion in samples of other substrata. The large frustules are likely to settle to the lake bottom resulting in relatively high benthic populations.
Other distributional and ecological records include central Italy (Ramrath et al. 1999) and western Tibet (Van Campo and Gasse 1993). In a sediment core taken from Lago di Mezzano, one of the most dominant diatom species was C. hibernicus in both the Pleistocene unit and the Late Glacial/Holocene unit; the presence of C. hibernicus in turbidites within the core indicated that it could have been transported into the lake from the shore (Ramrath et al. 1999). Campylodiscus hibernicus was also one of the dominant diatom species in the uppermost part of a sediment core taken in the Sumxi Co Basin of western Tibet, reflective of the slightly oligosaline status and relatively shallow state of the modern lake (Van Campo and Gasse 1993).
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) study was completed during the years 2000-2004 (see citations at bottom of this page). Over 1200 streams and rivers in 12 western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming) were selected for sampling based on a stratified randomized design. This type of design insures that ecological resources are sampled in proportion to their actual geographical presence. Stratified randomized design also allows for estimates of stream length with a known confidence in several “condition classes” (good or least-disturbed, intermediately-disturbed, and poor or most-disturbed) for biotic condition, chemistry and habitat.
Results are published in:
Johnson, T., Hermann, K., Spaulding, S., Beyea, B., Theel, C., Sada, R., Bollman, W., Bowman, J., Larsen, A., Vining, K., Ostermiller, J., Petersen, D. Hargett, E. and Zumberge, J. (2009). An ecological assessment of USEPA Region 8 streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Report, 178 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Olsen, A. R., Larsen, D. P., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Hughes, R. M., Whittier, T. R., Lomnicky, G. A., Herlihy, A. T., Kaufman, P. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., Paulsen, S. G., and Blair, R. (2005). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) western streams and rivers statistical summary. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/006, 1,762 p.
Stoddard, J. L., Peck, D. V., Paulsen, S. G., Van Sickle, J., Hawkins, C. P., Herlihy, A. T., Hughes, R. M., Kaufman, P. R., Larsen, D. P., Lomnicky, G. A., Olsen, A. R., Peterson, S. A., Ringold, P. L., and Whittier, T. R. (2005). An ecological assessment of western streams and rivers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report 620/R-05/005, 49 p.