SPECIES starting with "f"

 

Fallacia latelongitudinalis

  1. Valves linear
  2. Striae not resolvable under LM
  3. Conopeum covering valve almost entirely, except two openings at each apex
  4. Fascicles of pores on canopeum are slightly visible along raphe

Symmetrical biraphid - Valves are linear, with rounded ends. Vavles are 4.5-5.6 µm wide. The striae cannot be resolved with under LM, but the upper surface of the valve is covered by a conopeum, which has small pores arranged into fascicles that look like striae or “wrinkles” along the raphe under LM. The axial area is very narrow and there is a small elliptic central area. At each apex there are two openings between conopeum and the valve margin. The proximal raphe ends are very close together and slightly bent to the primary side of the valve.


Fallacia pygmaea

  1. Valves broadly lanceolate
  2. Apices rounded
  3. Lyre-shaped hyaline area
  4. Striae finely punctate

Symmetrical biraphid - Valves are broadly lanceolate with rounded apices. A lyre-shaped unornamented area bisects the striae on either side of the axial area, connecting to form the central area.


Fragilaria crotonensis

  1. Valves lanceolate
  2. Ribbon-like colonies
  3. Central valve margin inflated
  4. Spines present

Araphid - Valves of F. crotonensis are lanceolate, with an inflated central margin. Valve apices are rounded to capitate. Spines are positioned at the end of a stria. Frustules are joined in ribbon-like colonies.


Fragilaria tenera

  1. Narrow valves
  2. Capitate ends
  3. Central area lanceolate

Araphid - Valves are narrow and lanceolate, with attenuated, capitate apicies. The axial area is lanceolate and a fascia may be present or absent. Striae are more narrow than costae and extend midway onto the valve mantle.


Fragilaria vaucheriae

  1. Central area expanded to one side of valve (or in some specimens, to both sides of the valve)
  2. Central margin of valve expanded on one side
  3. Striae parallel and broad
  4. Striae widely spaced
  5. Rimoportula present near end of each valve

Araphid - Frustules are linear with rostrate to subcapitate apices. The central margin of valves is expanded to one side. The striae are broadly spaced, that is, costae are wide. The striae are interrupted by an expanded central area usually extending to one, or less commonly, to both sides of the valve. The striae are parallel, to slightly radiate near the valve ends. In some specimens, the striae continue through the central area. One rimoportula is present on each valve, positioned near the valve terminus. The rimoportula is oriented parallel, or slightly tilted, with respect to the transapical axis.


Fragilariforma horstii

  1. Valves cruciform
  2. Striae 34-40 in 10 µm

Araphid - Valves are cruciform and up to 20 µm long. Striae number 34 10 µm at the center to 40 10 µm at the ends.


Fragilariforma nitzschioides

  1. Valves linear with slightly rostrate to bluntly rounded apices
  2. Sternum narrow
  3. Rimoportula present at one, or both poles
  4. Short linking spines present

Araphid - Valves are linear with slightly rostrate to bluntly rounded apices. The sternum is very narrow. A rimoportula are present at one or both poles, which is visible in many specimens in LM. Short linking spines are most visible in frustules in girdle view.


Fragilariforma virescens

Neofragilaria virescens

  1. Valves linear to lanceolate, with rostrate ends
  2. Sternum narrow
  3. Rimoportulae one
  4. Spines present

Araphid - Valves are linear to lanceolate with rostrate, broadly rounded ends. In girdle view, frustules are rectangular with undulate ends. Striae are composed of round areolae. Spines are positioned on the costae. Two distinct, simple porefields are present at each apex, located on the valve mantle near the junction with the valve face.


Frickea lewisiana

  1. Very large, linear-lanceolate valves
  2. Expanded areolae at central area
  3. Longitudinal ribs enclose half of helictoglossa

Symmetrical biraphid - Transapically expanded areolae are present at the central area. The distal ends of the longitudinal ribs run parallel to the linear helictoglossa, enclosing roughly half of its length.


Frustulia amphipleuroides

  1. Robust, slightly curved porte-crayon
  2. Elongate central nodule
  3. Isolated poroids may be present in the central or distal area
  4. Longitudinal ribs slightly curved

Symmetrical biraphid - The porte-crayon is robust and slightly curved. The central nodule is elongate, especially in larger specimens. Isolated poroids are often present in the central area and near the distal raphe ends. The longitudinal ribs and raphe are slightly curved.


Frustulia asiatica

  1. Longitudinal ribs incomplete at the valve center
  2. Valves linear-lanceolate
  3. Central area oval

Symmetrical biraphid - Unlike most species of Frustulia, F. asiatica has longitudinal ribs that are incomplete at the valve center. The valves are linear-lanceolate and not at all rhomboid like other Frustulia taxa, but linear-lanceolate in shape. The central area is oval.


Frustulia capitata

  1. Longitudinal ribs complete, or nearly complete, on one side only
  2. Capitate to subcapitate apices
  3. External proximal raphe ends unilaterally deflected

Symmetrical biraphid - The longitudinal ribs of F. capitata are complete only on the side of the valve, the same side to which the proximal raphe ends are deflected. The valves are linear-lanceolate with capitate to subcapitate apices. The external proximal raphe ends are unilaterally deflected.


Frustulia crassinervia

Frustulia rhomboides var. crassinervia
Navicula rhomboides var. crassinervia

  1. Valve margins undulate
  2. Apices moderately protracted
  3. Porte-crayon small
  4. Longitudinal ribs slightly constricted at center

Symmetrical biraphid - The valves of F. crassinervia are rhomboid in shape, with undulate margins and moderately protracted apices. The porte-crayon is small. At the valve center, the longitudinal ribs are constricted, but only slightly.


Frustulia creuzburgensis

  1. Longitudinal ribs absent
  2. External proximal raphe ends unilaterally deflected
  3. Poroids near distal raphe ends
  4. Helictoglossae prominent

Symmetrical biraphid - Unlike other species of Frustulia, F. creuzburgensis lacks internal longitudinal ribs. The external proximal raphe ends are unilaterally deflected, while the distal raphe ends are straight. The distal raphe ends terminate in a transverse depression that contains poroids. The helictoglossae are prominent in LM.


Frustulia inculta

  1. Striae do not circumradiate apices
  2. Longitudinal ribs and raphe curved
  3. Longitudinal ribs moderately or slightly constricted at central nodule
  4. Longitudinal striae wavy
  5. Transapical striae parallel

Symmetrical biraphid - The striae are not circumradiate at the valve apices. The longitudinal ribs and raphe are noticeably curved. The longitudinal ribs are moderately or slightly constricted at the central nodule. Longitudinal striae are present but are very wavy. The transapical striae are generally parallel.


Frustulia krammeri

  1. Gap in striae at apices
  2. Valves strongly rhomboid
  3. Valve margin slightly constricted at apices
  4. Longitudinal ribs and raphe curved slightly
  5. Transapical striae wavy and convergent near apices

Symmetrical biraphid - Frustulia krammeri has striae that do not circumradiate the poles.The valves are strongly rhomboid, with a slight constriction at the valve apices. The longitudinal ribs and raphe curve slightly in the same direction. Near the apices, the striae become moderately wavy and then convergent at the apices.


Frustulia latita

  1. Longitudinal ribs incomplete at valve center
  2. Asymmetric central area
  3. Slightly rostrate apices
  4. External proximal raphe ends unilaterally deflected

Symmetrical biraphid - The internal, longitudinal ribs of F. latita are incomplete in the center of the valve. The central striae are variable in length, creating an asymmetric central area. The valve apices are very slightly rostrate. Externally, the proximal raphe ends are deflected unilaterally.


Frustulia neomundana

  1. Longitudinal ribs complete on one side of the valve
  2. Apices rostrate
  3. External proximal raphe ends unilaterally deflected

Symmetrical biraphid - The longitudinal ribs of F. neomundana are complete on one the side of the valve, the same side to which the proximal raphe ends are deflected. The valves are linear-lanceolate with rostrate apices. The external proximal raphe ends are unilaterally deflected.


Frustulia quadrisinuata

  1. Apices protracted and moderately rounded
  2. Margins moderately undulate

Symmetrical biraphid - The valve apices are protracted and moderately rounded. The valve margins are moderately undulate.


Frustulia rexii

  1. Valves strongly rhomboid
  2. Poroids present at external central area
  3. Abruptly widened longitudinal ribs near apices
  4. Striae circumradiate apices
  5. Valve slightly constricted at apices

Symmetrical biraphid - The valves of F. rexii are strongly rhomboid, with a very slightly constriction at the valve apices. A group of external poroids is present in the central area. Near the apices the longitudinal ribs are abruptly wider, giving the longitudinal ribs a unique appearance. Striae circumradiate the apices.


Frustulia saxonica

  1. Valve shape variable
  2. Apices slightly constricted
  3. Porte-crayon relatively small

Symmetrical biraphid - The degree of rhomboid valve shape is variable within populations, in direct proportion to valve size. The apices are slightly constricted and a relatively small porte-crayon is present.


Frustulia soror

  1. Longitudinal ribs complete on one side
  2. Valve apices slightly rostrate
  3. External proximal raphe ends unilaterally deflected

Symmetrical biraphid - The longitudinal ribs in Frustulia soror are complete only on one side of the valve, the side of the valve to which the proximal raphe ends are deflected. Valves are linear-lanceolate with slightly rostrate apices. The external proximal raphe ends are unilaterally deflected.


Frustulia vulgaris

  1. Longitudinal ribs incomplete at the valve center
  2. Striae slightly radiate at valve center
  3. Central area ovoid
  4. Valves slightly rhomboid, with rostrate apices

Symmetrical biraphid - The valves are linear-lanceolate-rhomboid, with rostrate apices. The striae are slightly radiate at the center of the valve, parallel or slightly convergent near the apices, and convergent at the apices. The longitudinal ribs are discontinuous at the center of the valve and do not fuse with the central nodule. The central area is ovoid in shape. The distal, external raphe fissures form a small Y-shape, usually visible only with SEM.