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Diatoms of the United States is now known as Diatoms of North America.
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Pervalvar axis

Algae growing on or around submerged aquatic plants. The term is often used in a more general sense to describe the algae growing on any submerged surface.

Alternative Term


A community of small animals and plants attached to submerged surfaces in aquatic ecosystems.



Allan, J.D. (1995). Stream Ecology: Structure and Function of Running Waters. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 388 pp.

Driscoll, R.J. and Waterford, Z.L. (1994). Potamogeton acutifolius and epiphytic diatoms at Buckenham. Transactions of the Norfolk Norwich Nature Society 30(1): 80-88.

Smol, J.P. and Stoermer, E.F. (2010). The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences, Second Edition. Cambridge University Press, 667 p.

Stevenson, R.J. and Bahls, L.L. (1999). Periphyton Protocols. In: Barbour, M.T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B.D. and Stribling, J.B. 1999. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates, and Fish, Second Edition, EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C.